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当前位置:搜考网 >> 外语 >> 托福 >> 托福-雅思大作文大字报:主题+结构+内容

托福-雅思大作文大字报:主题+结构+内容

2013-01-26 09:32:11  来源:网络  浏览次数:0  文字大小:【】【】【
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English Composition:
TOEFL 英文+作文
IELTS   英文+作文
 
 
作文:主题 结构 内容
Think logically before you write: Unity+Progression+Coherence
 
 
【主题】同一 集中【焦点】 分头指标
Unity (thesis well-focused)
 
 
【结构】渐进 逻辑【组织】 起承转合
Progression (structure well-organized)
 
 
【内容】连贯 论证【支持】 自圆其说
Coherence (content well-supported)
 
 
英文:用语 用句 用字
Write grammatically at the rhetorical, syntactic and lexical levels.
 
修辞效率 Rhetoric =language effectiveness
句型变化 Syntax =sentence variety
词汇恰当 Lexicon=vocabulary=word choice
 
 
 
TOEFL 评分标准
iBT/Next Generation TOEFL Test
 
Within the Independent Writing task, test takers are asked to write about a given topic.  The purpose of this test is to measure the test-takers' ability to state their opinions based on their knowledge or experience.  They should support their opinions with examples and/or details.

Independent Writing Rubrics
(ETS Scoring Standards)
(Score 5)  An essay at this level largely accomplishes all of the following:

--effectively addresses the topic and task
--is well organized and well developed, using clearly appropriate explanations, exemplifications and/or details
--displays unity, progression, and coherence
--displays consistent facility in the use of language, demonstrating syntactic variety, appropriate word choice, and idiomaticity, though it may have minor lexical or grammatical errors
 
"ETS uses both human raters and automated scoring methods to offer a complete and accurate picture of an applicant's ability.  While automated scoring models have advantages, they do not measure the effectiveness of the language response and the appropriateness of its content.  Human raters are needed to attend a wider variety of features, such as the quality of ideas and content as well as form."
 
"Additionally, studies have shown that prompts designed for fully automated scoring have been more vulnerable to prompt-specific preparation and memorized responses."
 
"The TOEFL test uses automated scoring to complement human scoring in the Writing Section.  Combining human judgment for content and meaning, and automated scoring for linquistic features, ensures consistent, quality scores."



IELTS 评分标准
IELTS Task 2 Writing band descriptors (public version)
Band 9

Task Response-- 【TR】
*fully addresses all parts of the task
*presents a fully developed position in answer to the question with relevant, fully extended and well supported ideas

Coherence and Cohesion--【CC】
*uses cohesion in such a way that attracts no attention
*skillfully manages paragraphing

Lexical Resource--【LR】
*uses a wide range of vocabulary with very natural and sophisticated control of lexical features; rare minor errors occur only as 'slips'

Grammatical Range and Accuracy--【GRA】
*uses a wide range of structures with full flexibility and accuracy; rare minor errors occur only as 'slips'


作文 Composition>

主题有焦点 Thesis (well focused): Your essay presents a fully developed position in answer to the queston, fully addressing all parts of the topic and task.

结构有组织 Structure (well organized): Your essay skillfully manages paragraphing, and is well organized and well developed. It displays unity, progression, and coherence (+cohesion).

内容有支持 Content (well supported): Your essay presents fully extended and well supported ideas, using clearly appropriate explanations, exemplifications and/or details.


英文 English>

修辞效率 Rhetoric (language effectiveness): Your essay displays consistent facility in the use of language and idiomaticity (idiomatic language), though it may have minor lexical and grammatical errors.

句型变化 Syntax (sentence variety): Your essay uses a wide range of sentence patterns with full flexibility and accuracy, demonstrating syntactic variety; rare minor errors occur only as 'slips'.

词汇恰当 Lexicon (word choice): Your essay demonstrates appropriate word choice, and uses a wide range of vocabulary with very natural and sophisticated control of lexical features; rare minor errors occur only as 'slips'.

Task Response:完整答题--
答题立场+论证支持+抽象逻辑
 
【抽象】话题:
议论文话题都倾向抽象概念的讨论 (discuss abstract ideas). 所以回答议论抽象的话题必须把思维逻辑化 (thinking logically)。论说文的主旨就是说服读者接受作者的立场。论证如果没有抽象的逻辑,则不足以完全支持这个立场。论证的知识(knowledge)或经验(experience)也都是逻辑化的抽象概念。
 
由答题的立场而产生论说文的主题。假设布局四段【起承转合】。起=引言 【申论主题】。承+转=中体 【支持主题】。合=结论 【重申主题】。
 
考生申论的主题需要举出【切题】的例子(+细节)来支持(evidential support)主题。所谓【切题】的举例,在 TOEFL 说 "specific examples";在 IELTS 说"relevant examples".
 
 
 
 
Task (TOEFL/IELTS)--答题的【立场】(主题-焦点-指标)
Do you agree or disagree? (To what extent do you agree or disagree?)
 
Response (TOEFL/IELTS)--立场的【支持】(理由-例子-细节)
TOEFL: Use reasons and specific examples and/or details to support your answer.
IELTS: Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.










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